What is Android: Android OS is a mobile operating system based on the Linux kernel, developed by Google. Linux operating system used for server and desktop computers. Therefore Android OS specially made for touch screen mobile devices such as smart phone and tablets.In easy word Android an operating system that is designed to run the applications easily on the mobile phones. For more visit- InfinityGyan.in: Free e-Learning Platform
Introduction of Android OS
About Android OS: Android is an open source and Linux-based operating system for mobile devices and smartphones and tablet computers such as Linux. Android was developed by the Open Handset Alliance led by Google and other companies.
Architecture of Android OS
There are five components are available of Android based on that full android platform work and Android is developed to make full use of device with limited memory capacity such as mobile.
Android become the more powerful with the use of Linux and kernel and because of that Android can be use for any mobile devices. Android is flexible and easy to understand operating system, Android can run on tablet,smart phone without any difficulty and now a days Android is using in smart television also.
Android has proven a best platform till now and the the features of Android make Android different from other platform. The specialty of the Android is that Android is free and open source operating system that can use on any mobile devices.
The source code of Android can be written by any code developer and modifies Android according to their need, that make easy for developer to develop application of Android that is not available in other operating system. That is also one reason now every one just using android smart phone
History of Android OS
Android was launched in 2003 by the founder of Android INC Andy Rubin. Andy Rubin is a entrepreneur experienced knowledgeable and machine technology or code developer. Andy Rubin has worked in different renowned companies such as silicon bally and google. Andy Rubin start a small start up with Android project but to lead this project revenue was require that was not possible for alone Andy Rubin. where other companies was not interesting in Android then google take interest and in 2005, INC bought by the google.
And after that Andy Rubin was made the head of Android voice development in google. Initially Android was not developed for mobile devices, it was developed for digital devices such as digital camera But onward Android used on mobile devices.
Google found the Android very interesting concept, with the help of that powerful and free operating system could be made.
Officially Android was unveiled in 2007 by google, and also announced for Android development. In September 2008 HTC dream mobile launched that was the first Android mobile, after the launch of Android, public give much appreciation to Android. Many Android versions was launched and now the Android is most popular mobile operating system in the world.
In 2013 Andy Rubin resigned from the post of Android voice development because of his another project, then Sundar pichai who is the CEO of google, appointed the head of Android. Android is keep going on the path of success under the sunder pichai supervision.
Hardware used in Android OS
About Android Hardware: ARM(Acorn RISC Machines) is the main hardware platform for Android. The minimum requirement for Android were originally a 200 MHz processor 32 MB of RAM, and 32 MB of Storage. CPU is responsible for the executing any single task in the device and it is know as the processor of device. with the help of CPU device performance is performed and For better performance Android environment required.
CPU and Memory:
- NXP i.MX7D
- 1GH dual-core ARM cortex A7
- 512MB Ram
- Broadcom BCM2837
- 1.2GHz quad-core ARM Cortex A53
- 1GB RAM
Android is compatible with a wide range of hardware and this become the easy with the help of Linux and kernel. Android provide a flexibility to the device for design based on their requirement.
Features and Interface of Android
Android provide a beautiful and interactive Interface, that is very easy to use. Normal men can also use it easily who is using it first time.
Android’s default user interface is mainly based on direct manipulation, like tapping touching, Android Interface happily work with the connecting of mobile devices. Android Interface is designed to easy use such as gaming controller Bluetooth support. Response of the user is designed to for alert position such as vibration while calling, vibration by touch the screen. This all things also make Android cool operating system.
Multitasking, Connectivity and Applications
Android OS provide multitasking environment to their users such as listening music and downloading any file from the internet. Android provide multiple useful connectivity tool such as WiFi, Bluetooth, hotspot, NFC 3G-4G etc. That help a user to connect any other network.
Android operating system provide full freedom for user to install any application and use then on the device. Google Play Store is a By default application that is available on the Android, that provide free permission to the Android user.
Android versions and their names
Google has Launched 18 version of Android till now. Google Launches Android versions at different times with new features and improvements. Google regularly working on Android and every year google launched a new Android versions. Google puts the name of Android versions on Sweets and dessert such as Cupcake, donuts, Eclair etc. Each version of Android is named in alphabetical order such as:
- Android 1.5 – Android Cupcake
- Android 1.6 – Android Donut
- Android 2.0 – Android Eclair
- Android 2.2 – Android Froyo
- Android 2.3 – Android Gingerbread
- Android 3.0 – Android Honeycomb
- Android 4.0 – Android Ice Cream Sandwich
- Android 4.1 to 4.3.1 – Android Jelly Bean
- Android 4.4 to 4.4.4 – Android KitKat
- Android 5.0 to 5.1.1 – Android Lollipop
- Android 6.0 to 6.0.1 – Android Marshmallow
- Android 7.0 to 7.1 – Android Nougat
- Android 8.0 to Android 8.1 – Android Oreo
- Android 9.0 – Android Pie
- Android 10
- Android 11
Let’s talk about all the version of Android OS one by one and their feature also, and what all changes are done in newly update version.
Android 1.5: Android Cupcake
Android Cupcake 1.5 was Launched on April 27,2009, It was the first Android version that puts on the name of dessert and it had the features.
- Large screen support
- Third party virtual keyboard Option
- Direct youtube video upload option
- Video recording and playback
- Animated screen transitions
- support for Widgets
Android 1.6: Android Donut
Android 1.6 Donut is the fourth version of Android operating system, that was Launched on September 15, 2009, specialty of Android 1.6 Donut that it has enhance user experience, text to speech, camera, camcorder, Navigation, big screen full support and search integration.
Android 2.0: Android Eclair
Android Eclair was released on October 26, 2009, this Android version was released with more cool features such as multi touch support, Bluetooth 2.1 support, digital zoom features, live wallpaper support and flash camera support. This all features of Android operating system made mobile device as cool Android device.
Android 2.2: Android Froyo
Android Froyo was released on May 20, 2010 and the features of Android froyo was, application launcher, wi-fi hotspot functionality, Android device speed and Home screen was improved.
Android 2.3: Android Gingerbread
Android Gingerbread released on December 6, 2010, Android Gingerbread had the features of Internet calling, barometer sensor, download Manager, Different type of camera’s introduced in Android 2.3 Gingerbread, enhanced copy past, improved power management.
Android 3.0: Android Honeycomb
Android Honeycomb was released on February 22, 2011,Android Honeycomb was made only for devices with larger screen. In easy words Android Honeycomb was the first Android operating system using tablet only, features of Android Honeycomb was multitasking, allows multiple browser tab, video support for chat using Google Talk and redesigned keyboard also attached.
Android 4.0: Android Ice Cream Sandwich
Android Ice Cream Sand witch was Launched on October 18, 2011, Android Ice Cream Sand witch was the successor of Android Honeycomb that made for mobile devices. In Android Ice Cream Sand witch new additional features added such as default Font, consist of face lock, better voice integration, Screenshot capture, improved camera app with zero shutter lag.
Android 4.1 to 4.3.1: Android Jelly Bean
Android jelly Bean launched on July 9, 2012, with some extra cool feature such as ability to turn of notifications on app, USB audio.
The Android jelly bean interface was better and buttery smooth to use, Speech typing features were also added in Android 4.1 jelly Bean and speed also optimized.
Android 4.4 to 4.4.4: Android KitKat
Google launched Android kitkat version on October 31, 2013. Android kitkat could be supported more verity of devices. Even Android kitkat version was supportable for leas of RAM devices such as 512, Artificial google assistant and emojis with keyboard were also used in Android kitkat operating system.
Android 5.0 to 5.1.1: Android Lollipop
Android Lollipop was released on November 12, 2014, Android Lollipop operating system made for low power consumption, In Android Lollipop some changes were done in Notifications, Android Lollipop user interface was redesigned and some changes also include such as notification can be accessed from the lock screen and displayed within applications as top-of-the-screen banners.
Android 6.0 to 6.0.1: Android Marshmallow
Android Marshmallow is sixth operating system Launched by the google on October 5, 2015, Android marshmallow was smart fingerprint sensor supportable, USB type-C support ability was available.
Android 7.0 to 7.1: Android Nougat
Android Nougat was released on August 22, 2016, Android Nougat was the seventh major version and 14th original version of the Android operating system.Android Nougat 7.0 features are-
- Multi window support
- Battery optimization: if user is not using the device then device use low power consumption
- Quick settings according to user requirements
- Direct Notification reply from top-of-the-screen banners
- Some Security loop holes improved
- Swipe down gesture
- Circular app icon support
- App shortcut
- Dynamic calendar date icon
- Quick Switch adapter wired featured from Android
- Smart storage
Android 8.0 to Android 8.1: Android Oreo
Android Oreo 8.0 was launched August 21, 2017, by the Google with some new features inundation such as
- Smart text selection
- Notification dots: if any notification received then on the app dot appeared
- WI-FI Awareness: as mobile device goes in wi-fi zone then device start wi-fi by detecting it.
- Enhanced Battery Life
- More security provided
Android 9.0: Android Pie
Google launched Android pie 9.0 on August 6, 2018, and Android pie 9.0 is the ninth major release and the 16th version of the Android mobile operating system. Android pie 9.0 open source operating system has some exiting feature that make it special such as-
- Adaptive battery: if apps are not the working then apps be in inactive conditions and Android pie 9.0 make the device app energy efficient manner
- Adaptive Brightness: this features provides ambient lightning according to user personal preferences
- Android Dashboard: Android dashboard specially designed for user habits. with the help of Android dashboard user can come to know that what all applications he has used and how many notifications he received and according to Android dashboard user can manage his time. So Android dashboard is one of the cool feature of Android pie 9.0.
- App timer: Android pie 9.0 provide app timer. user can set app for utilizing the time.
- Salish gesture: Android pie 9.0 provide this features, in which user can set Do not disturb mode by turning.
Android 10 is the 10th major release and Android 10 is the 17th version of the Android mobile device operating system. It was released on September 3, 2019. Android 10 is the latest version which is happily used for mobile devices.
Android 10 exciting and cool features are given blow-
- Tremendous Permissions Controls: Android 10 operating system has a better permission control than other Android versions.
- Faster sharing: Android 10 has faster sharing than previously available Android
- Built-in Screen Recording: Android 10 versions provides built-in screen recording facility that make easy recording for user.
- Depth Format: Android 10 provides depth format to make photo resolution better.
- Theme: Android 10 operating system provide multiple theme support for the mobile device so user can set those themes according to choice.
- Privacy Protection
Android 11 is the latest mobile operating system that will be released soon, After Android 10 operating system some amazing features shall be added in Android 11. Let’s Know about the new features of Android 11.
- Support for fordable devices: It is heard that Samsung and other companies are going to launched fordable mobile phones. In those fordable devices shall need new operating system and Android 11 is being designed for fordable support.
- 5G: soon 5G technology is going to launched, and Android 11 will be suitable for that.
- High Efficiency Image File Format, Storage of individual images, image properties and thumbnail.
- Support for STIR/SHAKEN: Secure Telephone Identity Revisited(STIR), Secure Handling of Asserted information using toKENs(SHAKEN). It is the fantastic feature of android 11 that will make calling mare secure.
Language support in Android OS
Android provide multiple language support such as English,Hindi,Marathi,Punjabi,Gujarati etc. Android user can choose any language and use that language as per its choice.
Security and Privacy
- To secure user data Android provide a full security, multiple type of security tool is provided in Android operating system such pin number, pattern, finger lock.
- Pin: Pin number is one of the security type tool pin number can be four digit to eight digit. Once set a pin password in the android phone then device will allow the user only when the proper pin number provided to the device.
- Some unknown application are available on the internet that is uploaded by third party That can be harm full for the devices.
- Developer set a security system for in the android operating system that recognize the unknown resource or application. Android does not allow this type of resource that is harm full.
- Developer provide a security system for android that before installing any unknown application first Android ask for permission from the the user and then install it.
Updates on Android
Android operating system is Normally used in all mobile devices. To provide best service for Android users new versions are keep launching, for using these all new versions Android user does not need to buy new phone, Because these versions are available in user device as Android version. Which can be downloaded and installed free.
Android user can get a lots of new features in mobile devices by updating, And after Every update device speed is increased
The core Android source code is known as Android Open Source Project(AOSP) which is primarily licensed under the Apache License such as Apache License 2.0 GNU GPL v2 for the Linux kernel modification kernel type Linux kernel, platform 32- and 64-bit ARM,x86 and x86-64.
for more detail please visit the website: www.Android.com
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